Geografi ; natur og klima ; demografi ; historie ; krige ; kultur ; kunst ; film ; musik ; politik ; politiske partier ; forsvar ; fredsbevægelser ; religion ; sociale forhold ; uddannelse og økonomi.
Geography; Nature and climate; Demography; History; Wars; Culture ; Art; Film; Music; Politics; Political parties ; Defense; Peace movements; Religion; Social conditions ; Education and Economics.
Géographie; Nature et climat; Démographie; Guerres; Histoire; Culture ; La musique; Politique; Partis politiques ; La défense; Mouvements de paix; Religion; Conditions sociales ; Éducation; Économie et commerce des armes

Syriens våbenhandel

Syriens Våbenfabrikker, våbenhandel og våbentransporter: / Weapon Factories, arms trade and -transport / Les fabriques d'armes, le commerce des armes et de transport / Las fábricas de armas, tráfico de armas y -transporte / Waffenfabriken, Waffenhandel und Verkehr:
Syrien har været i krig siden 2011.
/ Syria has been at war since 2011.
Report of the independent international commission of inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic. UN Human Rights Council, Seventeenth special session, 2011.
Military and security forces
'18. The Syrian Arab Armed Forces comprise the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. They are responsible for defending the national territory and protecting the State from internal threats. Numbering around 300,000, the armed forces are organized into three corps with a total of 12 divisions: seven armoured, three mechanized, one Republican Guard and the Special Forces. Elite units include the 10,000-man Republican Guard, under the President's control, tasked to counter any threat from dissident military forces, and the 20,000-man Fourth Division, which is commanded by Maher Al Assad, the President's brother.
19. The State security apparatus is reported to be large and effective, with a multitude of security forces and intelligence agencies that have overlapping missions. They play a powerful role in Syrian society, monitoring and repressing opposition to the Government. The internal security apparatus includes police forces under the Ministry of the Interior, Syrian Military Intelligence, Air Force Intelligence, the National Security Bureau, the Political Security Directorate and the General Intelligence Directorate. The latter consists of 25,000 members formally under the Ministry of the Interior but reporting directly to the President and his inner circle. It includes Internal Security (also known as the State Security Service), External Security and the Palestine Division.'
Arms Transfers to the Middle East. / : Sam Perlo-Freeman. SIPRI Background Paper, 2009.
EU arms embargo on Syria. SIPRI 2013.
'From May 2011 to the end of May 2013 the European Union imposed a full arms embargo on Syria in response to the violent repression by Syrian government forces of peaceful protests and the following violent conflict in the country. Due to disagreement between EU states about allowing the supply of arms to rebel forces in Syria large parts of the embargo were lifted per 1 June 2013.'
Eksport af våben til Libanon.
Import af våben, ifølge SIPRIs Arms Transfers Database, fra Bulgarien, Iran, Italien, Kina, Nordkorea, Pakistan, Rusland, Sovjetunionen, Tjekkoslovakiet og Ukraine.
Arms transfers to Syria. / : Pieter D. Wezeman.
SIPRI Yearbook 2013: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Oxford University Press, 2013.
'During 2006–10, Russia provided 48 per cent of Syria’s imports, with air defence systems and anti-ship missiles making up the bulk of the deliveries. Other suppliers of major conventional weapons were Iran (21 per cent), Belarus (20 per cent), North Korea (9 per cent) and China (2 per cent). More countries are likely to have been involved in the supply of other military equipment, including items used widely during the conflict. For example Russian and Italian companies were involved in upgrading Syrian T-72 tanks.'
Syriske oprørsgruppers import af våben:
UN Security Council: Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant ISIL, Arms Embargo, Resolution 2253 (2015)
'(c) Prevent the direct or indirect supply, sale, or transfer to these individuals, groups, undertakings and entities from their territories or by their nationals outside their territories, or using their flag vessels or aircraft, of arms and related materiel of all types including weapons and ammunition, military vehicles and equipment, paramilitary equipment, and spare parts for the aforementioned, and technical advice, assistance or training related to military activities;'
Våben og ammunition oprindelig fra Belgien, Egypten, Irak, Iran, Italien, Kina, Rusland, Sudan og USA.
Dispatch from the field: Islamic State weapons in Kobane: Analysis of weapons and ammunition captured from Islamic State forces in Kobane. - London : Conflict Armament Research Ltd., 2015.
The Odessa Network: Mapping Facilitators of Russian and Ukrainian Arms Transfers. / : Tom Wallace & Farley Mesko.
- Washington : Center for Advanced Defense Studies September 2013.
'The Odessa Network is a loose collection of logistics contractors for the governments of Russia and Ukraine, not independent arms dealers. Key companies and figures in Odessa include Kaalbye Group, Phoenix Trans-Servis, and their high-level political connections via key facilitators such as Boris Kogan. The companies work with state weapons export agencies such as Rosoboronexport and Ukrspetsexport...
Weapons and non-weapons shipping activities generate large profits for Odessa Network leaders. They put their money in both legitimate ventures and a well-known network of Panamamian shell companies and Latvian banks that have been used for money laundering by other entities, including the Sinaloa Cartel and Hezbollah. They also are active users of US and EU financial institutions.'
Se også:
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Arms Transfers to The Syrian Arab Republic: Practice and Legality. / : Mélanie De Groof.
- Bruxelles : Groupe de recherche et d'information sur la paix et la sécurité (GRIP), 2013.
The main purpose of this report is to offer an in-depth legal and factual analysis on arms transfers to Syria
Taking Stock: The Arming of Islamic State.
Amnesty International, December 2015

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