Græsk: Oprindelig betydning: det store vand, der dækkede jorden, verdenshavet.
Oceanbundsplader er en del af jordskorpen, som danner bunden af oceanerne.
Et saltvandshavområde mellem kontinenterne der er er en del af jordens samlede hydrosfære opdelt i:
The Peace Palace Library: Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law.
Se også: The UN Atlas of the Oceans ; erosion ; fiskeri ; fyrvæsen : Hugo Grotius ; hav, herunder De syv have ; hydrologi ; the International Dialogue on Underwater Munitions ; FN's internationale søfartsorganisation / the UN International Maritime Organization ; klimaforandringer ; Middelhavet ; oceanografi ; Traktat af 11 februar 1971 om forbud mod anbringelse af kernevåben og andre masseødelæggelsesvåben på havbunden og i dens undergrund ; tsunami eller tsunamibølge ; ø.


Cheng, L., and Coauthors, 2020: Record-setting ocean warmth continued in 2019. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 37(2), 137-142,
Human-emitted greenhouse gases (GHGs) have resulted in a long-term and unequivocal warming of the planet (IPCC, 2019). More than 90% of the excess heat is stored within the world’s oceans, where it accumulates and causes increases in ocean temperature (Rhein et al., 2013; Abram et al., 2019). Because the oceans are the main repository of the Earth’s energy imbalance, measuring ocean heat content (OHC) is one of the best way to quantify the rate of global warming (Trenberth et al., 2016; Von Schuckmann et al., 2016; Cheng et al., 2018). Following reports released in the previous two years (Cheng and Zhu, 2018; Cheng et al., 2019c), this article presents new OHC data for the year 2019. These data reveal that the world’s oceans (especially at upper 2000 m) in 2019 were the warmest in recorded human history. Specifically, the ocean heat anomaly (0-2000 m) in 2019 was 228 Zetta Joules (ZJ, 1 ZJ=1021 Joules) above the 1981-2010 average and 25 ZJ above 2018.
IPCC, 2019: Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate [H.- O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, M. Tignor, E. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, M. Nicolai, A. Okem, J. Petzold, B. Rama, N. Weyer (eds.)]. In press.
The impacts of climate change and related changes in the atmosphere on the oceans : a technical abstract of the first global integrated marine assessment. / : United Nations, 2017.
The ocean and the atmosphere are interconnected systems. Climate change is affecting them both. In particular, both are becoming warmer, with the ocean having absorbed about 93 per cent of the combined extra heat stored in the air, sea, land and melted ice between 1971 and 2010. In the ocean, this warming is in both the surface waters and the deeper water layers. The exchange of heat between the ocean and the atmosphere has led to changes in winds and in such phenomena as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, which in turn affects currents and waves in the ocean.
Rhein, M., S.R. Rintoul, S. Aoki, E. Campos, D. Chambers, R.A. Feely, S. Gulev, G.C. Johnson, S.A. Josey, A. Kostianoy, C. Mauritzen, D. Roemmich, L.D. Talley and F. Wang, 2013: Observations: Ocean. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

Der Almanach perpetuum des Abraham Zacuto : ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Astronomie im Mittelalter (1918, 1478).
- http://www.archive.org/details/deralmanachperpe00cohn
CRS: U.S. Disposal of Chemical Weapons in the Ocean: Background and Issues for Congress. / : David M. Bearden. 2007.
History of the British possessions in the Indian & Atlantic Oceans; comprising Ceylon, Penang, Malacca, Sincapore, the Falkland Islands, St. Helena, Ascension, Sierra Leone, the Gambia, Cape Coast Castle, &c., &c. / : R. Montgomery Martin (1837).
- http://www.archive.org/details/historyofbritish00martrich
Global ensemble projections reveal trophic amplification of ocean biomass declines with climate change. / : Heike K. Lotzea, et al. PNAS Latest Articles, 2019.
Climate change can affect the distribution and abundance of marine life, with consequences for goods and services provided to people. Because different models can lead to divergent conclusions about marine futures, we present an integrated global ocean assessment of climate change impacts using an ensemble ofmultiple climate and ecosystem models. It reveals that global marine animal biomass will decline under all emission scenarios, driven by increasing temperature and decreasing primary production. Notably, climate change impacts are amplified at higher food web levels compared with phytoplankton. Our ensemble projections provide the most comprehensive outlook on potential climate-driven ecological changes in the global ocean to date and can inform adaptive management and conservation of marine resources under climate change.
Jones et al., The Location and Protection Status of Earth’s Diminishing Marine Wilderness, Current Biology (2018).
- https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2018.06.010
Marinens Bibliothek : Katalog over Litteratur vedrørende Polaromraadernes og Verdenshavenes Opdagelse og Udforskning, Hval- og Sælfangst, Personalhistorie, Tidsskrifter, Aarsskrifter og andre Periodica : Udarb. paa Foranledning af Marinens Biblioteks Bogudvalg : Sluttet 31. December 1930. / : H. A. Ø. Bistrup. I Komm. hos Levin & Munksgaard, 1933.
Aarligt Tillæg til Katalog I og II. Marinens Bibliothek 1933-1942.
I Komm. hos Levin & Munksgaard, 1934-1943.
Russian marine expeditionary investigations of the world ocean. / : Edited by: R. Tatusko, S. Levitus.
World Data Center for Oceanography, Silver Spring.
; International Ocean Atlas and Information Series, Volume 5, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 56) 2002.
- ftp://ftp.nodc.noaa.gov/pub/data.nodc/woa/PUBLICATIONS/atlas56.pdf
The history of Russian oceanographic expeditionary research is very rich and full of numerous global-scale discoveries of great scientific importance. However, it is a very difficult task to introduce a comprehensive review of multidisciplinary marine investigations, which date back over 300 years. This publication is an endeavor to present the most important results of sea voyages and ocean expeditions performed by Russian seamen from the late 17th century up to the present. It is intended to familiarize the international oceanographic scientific communities as well as anyone interested in historical Russian marine exploration and the current state of expeditionary research. In particular, this monograph may be particularly useful for students and officers in navigation schools as more general information about Russia’s marine expeditionary research is presented. This monograph presents information on the most famous expeditions and the results from these investigations, the national and international projects (programs) involving Russia, and the organizations contributing to research of the world oceans.'
Stewart, Robert H.: Our Ocean Planet : Oceanography in the 21st Century.
- http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/oceanography-book/contents.htm

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