Geografi ; natur og klima ; demografi ; historie ; krige ; kultur ; kunst ; film ; musik ; politik ; politiske partier ; forsvar ; fredsbevægelser ; religion ; sociale forhold ; uddannelse ; økonomi og våbenhandel.
Geography; Nature and climate; Demography; History; Wars; Culture ; Art; Film; Music; Politics; Political parties ; Defense; Peace movements; Religion; Social conditions ; Education , Economics and Arms trade.
Géographie; Nature et climat; Démographie; Guerres; Histoire; Culture ; La musique; Politique; Partis politiques ; La défense; Mouvements de paix; Religion; Conditions sociales ; Éducation; Économie et commerce des armes

Indiske  kernevåben:

Indian nuclear weapons

Indien er siden den kolde krigs tid, fra 1974 og 1998, medlem af atomvåbenklubben. Atomvåbenuheld. Alle oplysninger om indiske atomvåben er hemmelige og eller maskerede.
India has since the Cold War, between 1974 and 1998, been a member of the nuclear club. Nuclear weapons accidents. All information about Indian nuclear weapons are secret and or masked.
Militærforskning og -udvikling
/ Military Research and Development
/ Recherche et développement militaire
/ Investigación y Desarrollo Militar
/ Militärische Forschung und Entwicklung:
CRS: Nuclear Weapons R&D Organizations in Nine Countries. / : Jonathan Medalia et al., 2013.
'United States, China, France, India, Israel, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia and United Kingdom.'
Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research
CRS: India's Nuclear Separation Plan: Issues and Views. / : Sharon Squassoni, 2006.
India is building nuclear submarines and ICBMs. That’s a $14 billion mistake. / : Frank O’Donnell, Alexander K. Bollfrass. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, February 26, 2020.
Indian nuclear forces, 2020. / : Hans M. Kristensen & Matt Korda. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 76:4, 2020, 217-225.
India's Nuclear Triad: A Net Assessment. / : Ajey Lele and Parveen Bhardwaj.
- New Delhi : Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, 2013.
; IDSA Occasional Paper No. 31)
SIPRI: India
'India is estimated to have an arsenal of 90–110 nuclear weapons. This figure is based on calculations of India's inventory of weapon-grade plutonium and the number of operational nuclear-capable delivery systems.
India's nuclear weapons are believed to be plutonium-based. As of 2015 India’s weapon-grade plutonium stockpile was estimated to be between 0.57 and 0.61 tonnes The plutonium was produced at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) by the 40 megawatt-thermal (MW(t)) heavy water CIRUS reactor, which was shut down at the end of 2010, and the 100- MW(t) Dhruva heavy water reactor.
India has plans to build six fast breeder reactors, which will significantly increase its capacity to produce plutonium for weapons. A 500 megawatt-electric (MW(e)) prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) is being built at the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) complex at Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu. It is expected to achieve first criticality during 2015, to be followed by an extended period of testing'
Indian-built Arihant nuclear submarine activated
10 August 2013
'India has activated the reactor on board the INS Arihant nuclear submarine, the first to be designed and built in India.'
Indiske atomvåbenforsøg: 1974 (Operation Smiling Buddha ; Operation Happy Krishna, Pokhran-I) ; 1998.
United Nationss Security Council Resolution 1172 (1998).
Adopted by the Security Council at its 3890th meeting, on 6 June 1998.
The Security Council [is], 'Gravely concerned at the challenge that the nuclear tests conducted by India and then by Pakistan constitute to international efforts aimed at strengthening the global regime of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, and also gravely concerned at the danger to peace and stability in the region,'
International politik:
Local Nuclear War, Worry has focused on the U.S. versus Russia, but a regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan could blot out the sun, starving much of the human race. / : Alan Robock and Owen Brian Toon Scientific American, January 2010.


U.S. Intelligence and the Indian Bomb : Documents Show U.S. Intelligence Failed to Warn of India's Nuclear Tests Despite Tracking Nuclear Weapons Potential Since 1950s. / : National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 187, 2006.
On Yields of May 11, 1998 Indian explosions by network averaged teleseismic P-wave spectra. / : S.K.Sikka.
Office of the Principal Scientific Adviser to Government of India, Delhi.
'Three underground nuclear explosions were detonated by India on 11 May, 1998. These were triggered simultaneously and comprised of a thermonuclear device, a fission device and a subkiloton device in spatially separated shafts. Initial estimates of the yields of about 60 kt were derived from close in measurements and from analysis of regional and teleseismic data. In 1998, Barker et al [1], in a paper in Science, applied the technique of network averaged teleseismic P-wave spectra from recordings from some stations to show that the observed shape of the May 11, 1998 Indian explosions (5/11/98, often referred to as POK-2 explosions) is remarkably similar to that for the tests at the former Soviet Semipalatinsk site and completely inconsistent with US Nevada test site'.
Pokharan-I: Personal Recollections. / : PR Chari.
Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies
www.ipcs. ; IPCS Special Report 80, 2009)
CRS: U.S. Nuclear Cooperation with India: Issues for Congress. / : Paul K. Kerr, 2010.
'India, which has not signed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) and does not have International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards on all nuclear material in peaceful nuclear activities, exploded a "peaceful" nuclear device in 1974, convincing the world of the need for greater restrictions on nuclear trade. The United States created the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) as a direct response to India's test, halted nuclear exports to India a few years later, and worked to convince other states to do the same. India tested nuclear weapons again in 1998. However, President Bush announced July 18, 2005, he would "work to achieve full civil nuclear energy cooperation with India" and would "also seek agreement from Congress to adjust U.S. laws and policies," in the context of a broader partnership with India.'
Organization of Atomic Energy in India, Bhabha. Date: April 26 1948 .
Source: Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA), Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhaba Papers, IDSA-HBP-26041948. Obtained and contributed by A. Vinod Kumar and the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. Description: A series of notes from Dr. Bhabha detailing important requirements and recommendations for the development of India’s nuclear power capabilities.
Historical Note on Tata Institute of Fundamental Research.
Date:January 1 1954 Source: Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA), Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhaba Papers, IDSA-HBP-01011954. Obtained and contributed by A. Vinod Kumar and the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. Description: A historical note from Dr. Bhabha to the Prime Minister chronicling the history of the establishment and subsequent operation of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. Also includes information about the Institute’s administrative functions and relations with the Atomic Energy Commission
India's Stocks of Civil and Military Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium, End 2014. / : David Albright and Serena Kelleher-Vergantini, 2015.
- Final.pdf
Se også: Aktuelle stater med atomvåben, kernevåben: Frankrig, Indien, Israel, Kina, Nordkorea, Pakistan, Rusland, Storbritannien og USA.
See also: Current states with nuclear weapons: France, India, Israel, China, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia, UK and USA.

Send kommentar, email eller søg i
Locations of visitors to this page