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Bosnien-Hercegovinas krige

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Allied Participation in Operation Iraqi Freedom. / : Stephen A. Carney. Center of Military History, United States Army. Washington, D.C., 2011.
Road to Dayton paved with genocide
International passivity, lack of support for peacekeepers doomed Srebrenica 20 years ago; 8,000 Muslim refugees died
Documents show Bosnian Serb plans changed from "squeezing" Srebrenica, to overrunning the enclave, to mass murder, in less than two weeks
U.N./NATO air strikes plus better-armed peacekeepers likely would have changed calculus
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 535
Edited by Tom Blanton and Emily Willard
Special thanks to Michael Dobbs and Sarah Chaney Reichenbach
Washington, D.C., November 23, 2015 - Lack of reaction by United Nations forces in the former Yugoslavia to escalating Bosnian Serb offensives in June and July 1995 played a crucial role in the eventual decision by Bosnian Serb general Ratko Mladic to murder more than 7,000 Muslim refugees, Bosniak men and boys of Srebrenica, 20 years ago, according to documents posted today by the National Security Archive ( The documents show the Srebrenica genocide represented a debacle for international peacekeeping and a turning point towards more forceful intervention, culminating in the Dayton accords that ended the Balkan wars on November 21, 1995.
The documents published today formed part of the briefing book compiled by the Archive for the historic "critical oral history" conference in The Hague this past June on the 20th anniversary of the Srebrenica genocide. The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum and The Hague Institute for Global Justice co-organized the conference with the Archive's support, and this week are publishing the conference transcript and rapporteur's summary to mark the 20th anniversary of the Dayton agreement.
History of the War in Bosnia During the Years 1737-8 and 9: during the years ... (1830).
Herzegovina and the late uprising; the causes of the latter and the remedies, from the notes and letters of a special correspondent (1877). -
Briefing on the F-16 shootdown in Bosnia and current operations : hearing before the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, first session, July 13, 1995 (1996).
The Dayton Accords : hearing before the Select Committee on Intelligence of the United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, second session ... Wednesday, July 24, 1996 (1996).
Developments in Bosnia-Herzegovina : hearing before the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, One Hundred Fourth Congress, first session, January 31, 1995 (1995).
Final report of the Select Subcommittee to Investigate the United States Role in Iranian Arms Transfers to Croatia and Bosnia ("the Iranian Green Light Subcommittee"), with minority views : report prepared for the Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives (1997).
Genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina : hearing before the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, One Hundred Fourth Congress, first session, April 4, 1995 (1995).
Hearings on U.S. actions regarding Iranian arms shipments into Bosnia : hearings before the Select Committee on Intelligence of the United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, second session ... Tuesday, May 21, 1996; Thursday, May 23, 1996 (1997).
Human rights, refugees, and war crimes : the prospects for peace in Bosnia : hearing before the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, first session, November 15, 1995 (1996).
Implementation of the Helsinki accords : hearing before the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, One Hundred Third Congress, first session, the fate of the people of Bosnia-Herzegovina, October 21, 1993 (1994).
The latest crisis in Bosnia-Herzegovina : hearing before the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, One Hundred Fourth Congress, first session, June 8, 1995 (1996) om våbenhandel.
Mass graves and other atrocities in Bosnia : hearing before the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, One Hundred Fourth Congress, first session, December 6, 1995 (1996).
Situation in Bosnia : hearing before the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, first session, June 8, 1995 (1995).
Srebrenica Conference Documents Detail Path to Genocide from 1993 to 1995
Documents show contradictions between New York UN declarations and ground realities, resistance from member states to back up resolutions with troops and planes, constant reluctance to use air strikes abetted by divisions within U.S. government, allies
International failures around 1995 genocide had roots in 1993 debates over "safe areas"
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 519
Edited by Tom Blanton and Emily Willard
The Hague, The Netherlands, July 1, 2015 - Debates in the United Nations and within UN staff and member states as early as March 1993 over the concept of so-called "safe areas" for Bosnians within the former Yugoslavia exposed deep contradictions between means and ends, capabilities and intentions, that culminated in the Srebrenica genocide of 1995, according to documents reviewed this week at the international conference marking the 20th anniversary of Srebrenica and posted today by the National Security Archive (
The documents include the field report on the first declaration by a UN official, General Philippe Morillon, to the inhabitants of Srebrenica and refugees who had fled there to escape ethnic cleansing that they were "under the protection of the UN." Other documents provide critiques of the concept of safe havens from the U.S. intelligence community and from the UN Secretariat, which argued for a "heavy option" of 30,000 or more troops, which at least one Security Council ambassador, David Hannay, took to be an attempt to undermine the whole idea of "safe areas".
The documents also feature extensive exchanges between UN headquarters and the UN forces in the field over how to carry out the Security Council's resolutions, with one general in the field remarking that the UN decision to proceed with the "light option" meant the safe areas completely depended on the agreement of the parties to the conflict. The then-head of UN peacekeeping, Kofi Annan, remarked in one cable about demilitarizing the safe zones, that "In doing so, however, UNPROFOR takes on a moral responsibility for the safety of the disarmed that it clearly does not have the military resources to honor beyond a point."
The documents reflect the continuing insistence throughout 1993-1995 by senior officials such as Special Representative Yasushi Akashi and his senior military commanders, Gen. Bertrand de La Presle and Gen. Bernard Janvier, that UNPROFOR remain neutral and avoid taking action that might provoke confrontation - a mindset that would have fateful consequences in the dates leading up to Srebrenica.
Also included in the documents are the arguments from Lt. Gen. Rupert Smith for more aggressive action to break the cycle in 1994 and 1995 of escalation and counter-escalation and retreat. One example Smith presented was of Bosnian Serbs taking UN personnel hostage in reaction to, and in order to prevent, air strikes.
This posting is the first of a series from the Srebrenica conference briefing book. The conference organizers plan to publish the entire evidence base from the conference, along with a rapporteur's report of findings and conclusions, and a final edited transcript of the discussion, which included Mr. Akashi, Gen. Smith, Lord Hannay, and 30 other eyewitnesses to international decision-making around the Srebrenica genocide.
Check out today's posting at the National Security Archive

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