U.S. Federal Presidents
U. S. présidents fédéraux
Presidentes U. S. Federal
†: Præsidenter dræbt i løbet af deres
†: Assassinated presidents during their terms of office
CRS: The Committee on Foreign
Investment in the United States (CFIUS). / : James K.
Jackson. 2012. - 27 s.
'The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) is an interagency committee that serves the President in overseeing the national security implications of foreign investment in the economy. Originally established by an Executive Order of President Ford in 1975'.
CRS: 2012-2013 Presidential Election Period: National Security Considerations and Options. / : John Rollins. October 5, 2012. - 39 s.
'The Presidential election period encompasses all pre- and post-government transition-related issues and activities.'
'A presidential election period is a unique time in America and holds the promise of opportunity, as well as a possible risk to the nation’s security interests. While possible changes in Administration during U.S. involvement in national security-related activities are not unique to the 2012-2013 election period, many observers suggest that the current security environment may portend a time of increased risk to the current presidential election period. Whether the enemies of the United States choose to undertake action that may harm the nation’s security interests during the 2012-2013 election period, or the existing or new President experiences a relatively peaceful period during the transition, many foreign policy and security challenges will await the Administration. Collaboration and coordination during the presidential election period between the current Administration and that of a potentially new one may have a long-lasting effect on the new President’s ability to effectively safeguard U.S. interests and may affect the legacy of the outgoing President'.
CRS: The Executive Budget Process: An Overview. / : Michelle D. Christensen. 2012. - 16 s.
'The U.S. Constitution vests Congress with the power to raise revenue and borrow money. Those funds may only be drawn from the Treasury in consequence of appropriations made by law. The Constitution, however, is largely silent with respect to the President’s role in the budget process. Instead, the current executive budget process is largely the result of statutes enacted by Congress.
The executive budget process consists of three main phases: development of the President’s budget proposal, submission and justification of the President’s budget proposal, and execution of enacted appropriations and other budgetary legislation. The purpose of this report is to provide an introduction to many elements of the executive budget process, highlighting the roles of the President, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and executive agencies.
The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 established the modern executive budget process.'
CRS: Former Presidents: Pensions, Office Allowances, and Other Federal Benefits. / : Wendy Ginsberg ; Daniel J. Richardson, 2016.
'The Former Presidents Act (FPA; 3 U.S.C. §102 note) was enacted to “maintain the dignity” of the Office of the President. The act provides the former President—and his or her spouse—certain benefits to help him respond to post-presidency mail and speaking requests, among other informal public duties often required of a former President. Prior to enactment of the FPA in 1958, former Presidents leaving office received no pension or other federal assistance. The FPA charges the General Services Administration (GSA) with providing former U.S. Presidents a pension, support staff, office support, travel funds, and mailing privileges.'
CRS: Informing Congress: The Role of the Executive in Times of War and Military Conflict, 1941-2001. 2002. - 53 s.
CRS: National Emergency Powers / Nationale Nødhjælpsforanstaltningsbeføjelser eller undtagelsesbeføjelser. / Harold C. Relyea. 2001. - 24 s. - http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/6216.pdf
CRS: Presidential Advisers’ Testimony Before Congressional Committees: A Brief Overview. / Harold C. Relyea. 2002. - 22 s. - - http://www.iwar.org.uk/news-archive/crs/9663.pdf
CRS: Presidential Appointments, the Senate’s Confirmation Process, and Changes Made in the 112th Congress. / : Maeve P. Carey. October 9, 2012. - 28 s.
'The responsibility for populating top positions in the executive and judicial branches of government is one the Senate and the President share. The President nominates an individual, the Senate may confirm him, and the President would then present him with a signed commission. The Constitution divided the responsibility for choosing those who would run the federal government by granting the President the power of appointment and the Senate the power of advice and consent'.
CRS: Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice and Recent Developments. / : Morton Rosenberg, 2008. - 44 s.
'Presidential claims of a right to preserve the confidentiality of information and documents in the face of legislative demands have figured prominently, though intermittently, in executive-congressional relations since at least 1792. Few such interbranch disputes over access to information have reached the courts for substantive resolution, the vast majority achieving resolution through political negotiation and accommodation. In fact, it was not until the Watergate-related lawsuits in the 1970’s seeking access to President Nixon’s tapes that the existence of a presidential confidentiality privilege was judicially established as a necessary derivative of the President’s status in our constitutional scheme of separated powers'.
CRS: Presidential Signing Statements: Constitutional and Institutional Implications / Todd Garvey. 2012. - 34 s.
CRS: Presidential Travel: Policy and Costs. /: L. Elaine Halchin. 2012. - 8 s.
'For security and other reasons, the President, Vice President, and First Lady use military aircraft when they travel.
The White House generally categorizes the trips as fulfilling either official or political functions. Often, a trip involves both official and political, or unofficial, activities. When a trip is for an official function, the government pays all costs, including per diem (food and lodging), car rentals, and other incidental expenses'.
CRS: The President’s Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): Issues for Congress . / : John F. Sargent Jr.; Dana A. Shea. November 26, 2012. - 48 s.
'Congress established the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) through the National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-282). The act states that “The primary function of the OSTP Director is to provide, within the Executive Office of the President [EOP], advice on the scientific, engineering, and technological aspects of issues that require attention at the highest level of Government.” Further, “The Office shall serve as a source of scientific and technological analysis and judgment for the President with respect to major policies, plans, and programs of the Federal Government.”
In the years leading up to World War II, the importance of research and development (R&D) to the nation’s economic and military strength became increasingly evident. As a result, President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) in 1941...'
GAO: Strategic Weapons: Changes in the Nuclear Weapons Targeting Process Since 1991. 2012. - 16 s.
President's Daily Briefs from Kennedy and Johnson Finally Released (Eight Years After Archive, Professor Larry Berman Lawsuit)
CIA Told Courts the PDB Was Itself an Intelligence Method
9th Circuit Ruled PDBs Could Not Be Withheld as a Class
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 530
Compiled and edited by Tom Blanton and Lauren Harper
Washington, D.C., September 16, 2015 - Today the CIA and the LBJ Library are releasing online a collection of 2,500 declassified President's Daily Briefs (PDBs) from the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. The PDBs are Top Secret documents containing the most current and significant intelligence information that the CIA believes that the President needs to know, and are records that CIA Director George Tenet once claimed could never be released for publication "no matter how old or historically significant it may be," and that White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer described as "the most highly sensitized classified document in the government."
The release of this collection of PDBs comes eight years after the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled against the National Security Archive and Professor Larry Berman, then a professor of political science at University of California Davis, now based at George State University, in his efforts to obtain the disclosure of two Presidential Daily Briefs written for President Lyndon B. Johnson in the 1960s. Professor Berman and the Archive were represented by Thomas R. Burke and Duffy Carolan of the law firm Davis Wright Tremaine LLP in San Francisco, CA. In its ruling, the Court noted - without viewing the documents - that their disclosure could "reveal protected intelligence sources and methods." The Court rejected, however, the CIA's "attempt to create a per se status exemption for PDBs."
At the time of the 2007 ruling, Archive General Counsel Meredith Fuchs said that while disappointed with the Court's decision, "Our goal in this litigation was to force the agency to conduct a genuine review and assess the true sensitivity of each document. We hope the Agency will take the Court's analysis to heart and do the right thing in the future."
President’s Daily Brief Spotlighted Soviet Missile and Space Programs in 1960s and 1970s
Daily Briefings Underscored Threats to National Security, Propaganda Value of Rival Programs
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 574
Washington, D.C., December 20, 2016 – Soviet missile and space programs were among the most frequent topics briefed to the president of the United States by U.S. intelligence during the administrations of John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard M. Nixon, and Gerald R. Ford, according to a review of recently declassified excerpts of the President’s Daily Brief posted today by the National Security Archive at The George Washington University. Of all the issues that crossed the president’s desk during this tense period of the Cold War, the USSR’s strategic capabilities and space program represented constant areas of concern because of the threat they posed both to U.S. national security and to American prestige in the propaganda war with its superpower rival.
Today’s Electronic Briefing Book presents a selection of entries on both programs compiled and introduced by James E. David, curator for national security space programs at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. In addition to excerpts from 66 PDB entries, the posting provides further background and context.
After years of legal battles under the Freedom of Information Act, the CIA released significant portions of the PDBs from the Kennedy-Johnson era (in 2015) and the Nixon-Ford period (in 2016). In late 2016, the National Security Archive published a highly indexed collection of those materials as part of the “Digital National Security Archive” through ProQuest. The materials in this posting are available through DNSA or by visiting the Archive’s offices in Gelman Library at The George Washington University.
CRS: Presidential Transition Act: Provisions and Funding. / : Henry B. Hogue, 2020..