jordskælv / earthquake

Et jordskælv og deres efterskælv er en rystelse af jorden og dens overflade.
Disse kan være forårsaget af, at kontinentalpladerne bevæger sig, vulkanisk aktivitet, eller menneskabte hændelser så som atomvåbenforsøg, eksempelvis detn ameri-kanske Operation Gnome 1961, eller olieboringer. Jordskælv, udgør også en fare for atomkraftværker, som i tilfældet med Fukushima-katastrofen i 2011.
Seismologi, videnskaben om rystelser i jorden, anvendes både til at måle atomvåben-forsøg og til måling af jordskælv.
An earthquake is a shaking of the earth and its surface.
These may be caused by the fact that the continental plates move, volcanic activity or man-made events such as nuclear weapons test, for example, the US Operation Gnome , 1961, or oil drilling. Earthquakes present also a danger to nuclear power plants, as in the case of the Fukushima catastrophe in 2011.
Seismology, the science of vibration in the soil, are used both to measure nuclear weapon tests and for the measurement of earthquakes.


Andrews, C. F.: The Indian earthquake. - London : G. Allen & Unwin Ltd., [1935].
CRS: Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal. / : Mark Holt. 2015.
'Spent Nuclear Fuel Program
The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (P.L. 97-425), as amended in 1987, required DOE to focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the site of a deep underground repository for spent nuclear fuel and other highly radioactive waste. The state of Nevada has strongly opposed DOE's efforts on the grounds that the site is unsafe, pointing to potential volcanic activity, earthquakes, water infiltration, underground flooding, nuclear chain reactions, and fossil fuel and mineral deposits that might encourage future human intrusion.'
CRS: Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and Research. / : Peter Folger, 2013.
CRS: Human-Induced Earthquakes from Deep-Well Injection: A Brief Overview. / : Peter Folger ; Mary Tiemann, 2014.
'The development of unconventional oil and natural gas resources using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has created new demand for wastewater disposal wells that inject waste fluids into deep geologic strata. An increasing concern in the United States is that injection of these fluids may be responsible for increasing rates of seismic activity. The number of earthquakes of magnitude 3.0 or greater in the central and eastern United States has increased dramatically since about 2009, from an average of approximately 20 per year between 1970 and 2000 to over 100 per year in the period 2010-2013. Some of these earthquakes may be felt at the surface. For example, 20 earthquakes of magnitudes 4.0 to 4.8 have struck central Oklahoma since 2009. The largest earthquake in Oklahoma history (magnitude 5.6) occurred on November 5, 2011, near Prague, causing damage to several structures nearby. Central and northern Oklahoma were seismically active regions before the recent increase in the volume of waste fluid injection through deep wells. However, the recent earthquake swarm does not seem to be due to typical, random, changes in the rate of seismicity, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.'
'Prior to the moment magnitude (M) 5.6 earthquake that occurred on November 6, 2011, in central Oklahoma (discussed below), an M 4.8 earthquake that struck northeast Denver on August 9, 1967, was generally accepted as the largest recorded human-induced earthquake. The M 4.8 earthquake was part of a series of earthquakes that began within several months of the 1961 start of deep-well injection of hazardous chemicals produced at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal defense plant. The earthquakes continued after injection ceased in February 1966.13 The disposal well was drilled through the flat-lying sedimentary rocks into the underlying older crystalline rocks more than 12,000 feet deep, and injection rates varied from 2 million gallons per month to as much as 5.5 million gallons per month.14 Earthquake activity declined after 1967, but continued for the next two decades. Scientists concluded that the injection triggered the earthquakes, and that even after injection ceased, the migration of the underground pressure front continued for years and initiated earthquakes along an ancient fault system many miles away from the injection well.15 As discussed below, the Rocky Mountain Arsenal earthquakes had many similarities to the recent increased earthquake activity in some deep-well injection activities of the United States, including, for example, injection near or in underlying crystalline bedrock, activation of fault systems miles away from the well, and migration of the pressure front away from the point of injection months or years after injection stopped.'
"Historic Earthquakes and Earthquake Statistics: Where do earthquakes occur?"
Centennial Earthquake Catalog
Engdahl, E.R., and A. Villaseñor, Global Seismicity: 1900–1999, in W.H.K. Lee, H. Kanamori, P.C. Jennings, and C. Kisslinger (editors), International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, Part A, Chapter 41, pp. 665–690, Academic Press, 2002.
Engdahl, E.R., R. van der Hilst, and R. Buland, Global teleseismic earthquake relocation with improved travel times and procedures for depth determination, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 88, 722–743, 1998.
A study of recent earthquakes. / : Charles Davison.
- London: The Walter Scott publishing co., ltd., 1905.
--I. Introduction.--II. The Neapolitan earthquake of December 16th, 1857.--III. The Ischian earthquakes of March 4th, 1881, and July 28th, 1883.--IV. The Andalusian earthquake of December 25th, 1884.--V. The Charleston earthquake of August 31st, 1886.--VI. The Riviera earthquake of February 23rd, 1887.--VII. The Japanese earthquake of October 28th, 1891.--VIII. The Hereford earthquake of December 17th, 1896, and the Inverness earthquake of September 18th, 1901.--IX. The Indian earthquake of June 12th, 1897.--X. Conclusion.

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