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Geography; Nature and climate; Demography; Wars; culture ; Music; Politics; Political parties ; Defense; Peace movements; Religion; social conditions ; Education; Economy and arms trade.
Geografía; Naturaleza y clima; Demografía; Guerras Cultura ; Música; Política; Fiestas políticas ; Defensa; Movimientos de paz; Religión; Condiciones sociales ; Educación; Economía y Comercio de armas.

Chiles historie:

The story of Spanish. / : Jean-Benoît Nadeau.
- New York : St. Martin's Press, 2013.
Sproghistorie / history of language / Historia del lenguaje.
Oldtiden / Antiquity.
Palæontologi / Megafauna.
Stenalderen / Stone Age.
Astronomi kulturarv og arkæoastronomi.
Bronzealderen / Bronze Age.
Helleristninger / Petroglyph.
Jernalderen / Iron Age.
Før Columbus. Inkariget 1438-1533.
Chile var koloniseret af Spanien til 1824. Ny Granada. Kongeriget Araucanien og Patagonien 1860-1862.
Militærkup og statskup / Military coup / coups d'Etat militaires / Los golpes militares / Militärputsche:
1891, 1925, 1973.
Inge Genefke - Portræt af en ildsjæl. / : Thomas Larsen. Lindhardt og Ringhof, 2005.
Lægen Inge Genefke (f. 1938) fortæller om sit liv og om sit arbejde gennem 30 år for at bekæmpe tortur og hjælpe torturofre, bl.a. med stiftelsen af Rehabiliterings- og Forskningscentret for Torturofre (RCT) og Det Internationale Rehabiliteringsråd for Torturofre (IRCT).
Agustin Edwards: A Declassified Obituary
Declassified CIA, White House Documents Reveal Collaboration between Chilean Media Mogul and Highest Level of Nixon Administration
Kissinger Set up Secret Meetings for Edwards with Nixon and CIA Director Richard Helms
Documents Record Edwards Covert Coup Plotting to Overthrow Allende in Chile
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 587
Washington, D.C., April 25, 2017 – Media mogul Agustin Edwards Eastman, who was widely regarded as the Rupert Murdoch of Chile, died on April 24, at age 89, leaving a legacy of close collaboration with Henry Kissinger and the CIA in instigating and supporting the September 11, 1973, military coup. Edwards was the only Chilean—civilian or military—known to meet face-to-face with CIA Director Richard Helms in September 1970 in connection with plans to instigate regime change against Socialist leader Salvador Allende, who had just been elected president.
Declassified CIA and White House documents posted today by the National Security Archive at The George Washington University show conclusively what Edwards repeatedly denied – that he and his newspaper, El Mercurio, became a critical part of U.S. plans to foment a military coup against President Allende.
U.S. Covert Intervention in Chile: Planning to Block Allende Began Long before September 1970 Election.
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 470. Posted May 23, 2014.
Kissinger and Chile: the declassified record on regime change
Kissinger pressed Nixon to overthrow the democratically elected Allende government because his "'model' effect can be insidious," documents show
On 40th anniversary of coup, Archive posts top ten documents on Kissinger's role in undermining democracy, supporting military dictatorship in Chile
Kissinger overruled aides on military regime's human rights atrocities; told Pinochet in 1976: "We want to help, not undermine you. You did a great service to the West in overthrowing Allende."
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 437. Posted -- September 11, 2013
Edited by Peter Kornbluh
Washington, D.C., September 11, 2013 -- Henry Kissinger urged President Richard Nixon to overthrow the democratically elected Allende government in Chile because his "'model' effect can be insidious," according to documents posted today by the National Security Archive. The coup against Allende occurred on this date 40 years ago. The posted records spotlight Kissinger's role as the principal policy architect of U.S. efforts to oust the Chilean leader, and assist in the consolidation of the Pinochet dictatorship in Chile.
The documents, which include transcripts of Kissinger's "telcons" -- telephone conversations -- that were never shown to the special Senate Committee chaired by Senator Frank Church in the mid 1970s, provide key details about the arguments, decisions, and operations Kissinger made and supervised during his tenure as national security adviser and secretary of state.
"These documents provide the verdict of history on Kissinger's singular contribution to the denouement of democracy and rise of dictatorship in Chile," said Peter Kornbluh who directs the Chile Documentation Project at the National Security Archive. "They are the evidence of his accountability for the events of forty years ago."
Today's posting includes a Kissinger "telcon" with Nixon that records their first conversation after the coup. During the conversation Kissinger tells Nixon that the U.S. had "helped" the coup. "[Word omitted] created the conditions as best as possible." When Nixon complained about the "liberal crap" in the media about Allende's overthrow, Kissinger advised him: "In the Eisenhower period, we would be heroes."
Dokumentarfilm: Guzmán, Patrico,: Die Schlacht um Chile I-III. Chile 1973, 1975, 1978. Tysk med spanske undertekster.
National Security Archive: Brazil Conspired with U.S. to Overthrow Allende. National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 282, 2009.
Kay Lundgreen-Nielsen: Poul Jensen: The Garotte. The United States and Chile, 1970-73, I-II . Aarhus, Aarhus University Press 1988.
I: Historisk Tidsskrift, Bind 15. række, 6 (1991) .
Los Quemados: Chile's Pinochet Covered up Human Rights Atrocity
Chilean Dictator Rejected Police Report Identifying Army Units which Burned Alive Teenage Protesters in 1986
Declassified Documents Could Provide Evidence in long-awaited Prosecution for Murder of Washington D.C. Resident Rodrigo Rojas, Burning of Carmen Quintana
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 523. / : Edited by Peter Kornbluh.
Washington D.C., July 31, 2015 - General Augusto Pinochet refused to accept a police report identifying his own military as responsible for burning two teenage protesters alive in July 1986, according to declassified U.S. documents posted today by the National Security Archive. Pinochet's action initiated a high-level cover-up of the infamous human rights atrocity known as the case of "Los Quemados" - the burned ones - which killed 19-year old Rodrigo Rojas de Negri and severely disfigured 18-year old Carmen Gloria Quintana.
The cover-up, which lasted almost three decades, included kidnapping and intimidation of witnesses and pressure on Chilean judges and lawyers, according to top secret White House, CIA and Defense Department records.
Yesterday, a Chilean judge ordered the arrest of an Army officer and four members of his patrol, in addition to seven others detained last week, for dousing Rojas and Quintana with a flammable liquid, setting them on fire and dumping them in a ditch to die, following a street protest against military rule on July 2, 1986. Both initially survived; but Rojas, sequestered by the military in a clinic with inadequate facilities, died from burns over 60 percent of his body four days later.
Only five days after Rojas died, according to a detailed State Department cable, General Rodolfo Stange, chief of the Chilean police and also a member of Pinochet's ruling junta, presented him with an investigative report identifying the army units responsible for the atrocity. "President Pinochet told General Stange that he did not believe the report, and he refused to receive the report," according to the declassified cable.
Stange subsequently provided the report to one of Pinochet's deputies, Army vice-commander Santiago Sinclair, who promised an investigation "within 48 hours." Instead of acting on the report, however, Sinclair oversaw intense efforts to silence witnesses and bury evidence, according to a soldier who recently broke his years of silence..
"One eyewitness was briefly kidnapped, blindfolded, and threatened if he did not change his testimony," the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency reported in an intelligence assessment classified TOP SECRET RUFF UMBRA. "Some members of the government will quite likely continue to intimidate the witnesses in order to persuade them to change their testimony, thereby clearing the military." According to a heavily censored CIA intelligence report, titled "Government of Chile Pressure to Drop Investigation and Prosecution of Rojas Case," regime officials intimidated judges and lawyers and intervened to stall legal efforts in the courts to bring those responsible to justice.
The case of Los Quemados received significant attention in the United States because Rojas was a resident of Washington D.C., where he lived with his exiled mother, Veronica de Negri. President Ronald Reagan received a secret briefing paper on the atrocity, which stated that Chile's own intelligence service "has fingered Army personnel as clearly involved." The murder of Rojas "drove the final wedge between Washington and the Pinochet regime," according to The Pinochet File, written by National Security Archive analyst Peter Kornbluh, and contributed to Reagan's decision to withdraw support for the regime and press for a return to civilian rule.
According to Kornbluh, who obtained the Rojas documents for his book, the U.S. records could bolster the testimony of witnesses in Chile and provide evidence in the upcoming prosecution. "Carmen Quintana and Rodrigo Rojas, who I watched grow up in Washington, deserve legal and historical justice," he noted. "The declassified U.S. records can advance both international memory of the victims and, after so many years, legal accountability for the atrocity committed against them."
The Pinochet File:
U.S. Declassifies missing documents in the Letelier-Moffitt case
Finally the verdict of history on Pinochet's role in terrorist act
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 532 Edited by Peter Kornbluh
Washington D.C., October 8, 2015 -- Chile's intelligence service assassinated exiled critic Orlando Letelier with a car bomb in 1976 on "direct orders" from Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet, according to newly declassified documents personally delivered this week by Secretary of State John Kerry to Chilean president Michelle Bachelet.
The 282 documents posted online today by the State Department total over 1,000 pages; they include a 1987 cable drafted by the State Department's intelligence bureau summarizing a series of informants' reports from years earlier in 1978, including the assertion by the head of Chile's intelligence agency, Manuel Contreras, that "he authorized the assassination of Letelier on orders from Pinochet," on "direct orders from Pinochet." Among the dozens of records released today were multiple witness interview transcripts by FBI agents working with Chilean detectives during a unique investigation undertaken in 1999/2000 by the Clinton Justice Department into General Pinochet's personal role in ordering and covering up an act of international terrorism in Washington D.C. on September 21, 1976.
On that day, agents of the Chilean secret police detonated a bomb under the car of former Chilean foreign minister, Orlando Letelier, killing him and his colleague, Ronni Karpen Moffitt. Her husband, Michael Moffitt, was the sole survivor of the terrorist attack. Until 9/11, the car-bombing was the most significant act of international terrorism ever committed in the U.S. capital.
Archive senior analyst Peter Kornbluh, author of The Pinochet File: A Declassified Dossier of Atrocity and Accountability (New York: New Press, 2003, 2013), described today's release as "a triumph for declassified diplomacy." Kornbluh's essay posted today on the National Security Archive web site,, explains the background of the Letelier case documents, and the lengthy behind-the-scenes effort to obtain their declassifcation and release.
The Archive also posted the January 22, 1987, cable summarizing intelligence on Pinochet and DINA's role in the assassination which quotes Contreras as telling a confidant "he authorized the assassination of Letelier on orders from Pinochet." Contreras is also quoted as telling Chilean military investigators that "all foreign operations had been approved by Pinochet and that [Contreras] had left sealed documents in several places in the event of his, Contreras' death."
SECRET CIA REPORT: Pinochet "Personally Ordered" Washington Car-Bombing
President Reagan informed that Pinochet's role was "a blatant example of a chief of state's direct involvement in an act of state terrorism"
National Security Archive Seeks Declassification of CIA Assessment in the Letelier-Moffitt Assassinations
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 532. / : Edited by Peter Kornbluh
Washington D.C., October 8, 2015 -- The CIA concluded that there was "convincing evidence" that Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet "personally ordered his intelligence chief to carry out the murder" of exiled critic Orlando Letelier in Washington D.C., according to a SECRET memo prepared for President Ronald Reagan in 1987. "Pinochet decided to stonewall on the US investigation to hide his involvement," the CIA review also noted, and as part of the cover-up considered "even the elimination of his former intelligence chief," DINA director Manuel Contreras, who had overseen the assassination plot.
The CIA intelligence review remains classified. But it was quoted in a dramatic report to President Reagan, dated on October 6, 1987, from his Secretary of State, George Shultz, as part of his efforts to convince the president to cut U.S. ties to Pinochet and press for the return of democracy in Chile. "The CIA has never before drawn and presented its conclusion that such strong evidence exists of his [Pinochet's] leadership role in this act of terrorism," the Secretary of State informed the President.
The National Security Archive today said it would file a Freedom of Information Act petition to secure the declassification of the CIA assessment and the raw intelligence reports it was based on. "This document is clearly the holy grail of the Letelier-Moffitt case," said Peter Kornbluh who directs the Archive's Chile Documentation Project. Kornbluh called on the agency "to release this document to complete the Obama administration's special declassification project on Chile."
Letelier, a former minister in the Allende government, and his 25-year old colleague, Ronni Karpen Moffitt, were killed by a car-bomb planted by agents of the Chilean secret police on September 21, 1976, as they drove to work down Massachusetts avenue in Washington D.C. Moffitt's husband, Michael, was the sole survivor of the bombing.
"It is not clear whether we can or would want to consider indicting Pinochet," Shultz wrote to Reagan. "Nevertheless, this is a blatant example of a chief of state's direct involvement in an act of state terrorism, one that is particularly disturbing both because it occurred in our capital and since his government is generally considered to be friendly."
Covert Action in Chile 1963-73 . / : U.S. Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations With Respect to Intelligence Activities (Church Committee), 1975.
Victor Jara murder: ex-military officers sentenced in Chile for 1973 death : Eight retired officers sentenced to 15 years in prison for the murder of popular folk singer during coup
Reuters in Santiago, Tue 3 Jul 2018
- 1973-death
Eight retired Chilean military officers have been sentenced to 15 years in prison for the murder of popular folk singer Victor Jara during the 1973 coup that installed late dictator Augusto Pinochet in power. A judge handed down the sentences after leading a long-running inquiry into Jara’s death on 16 September, 45 years ago, a statement from Chile’s courts authority said.
Miguel Vázquez sentenced the eight men to 15 years and one day in prison for the murder of Jara and that of former prisons director Littre Quiroga Carvajal.

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Antiquarian, Ethnological, and Other Researches in New Granada, Equador, Peru and Chili : With observations on the pre-Incarial, Incarial and other monuments of Peruvian nations. / William Bollaert, 1860. - 328 s.
Historia Fisica y Politica de Chile, segun documentos adquiridos en esta Republica durante doce annos de residencia en ella. / : Claude Gay.
- Santiago and Paris : Fain, Thunot, Maulde, etc., 1844-1871.
'Text arranged according to five divisions: Historia. Tomo primero [-octavo], 1844 [i.e. 1843]-1871; Documentos sobre la historia, la estadistica y la geografia. Tomo primero [-segundo], 1846-1852; Botanica. Tomo primero [-octavo], 1845-1852 [i.e. 1854]; Zoologia. Tomo primero [-octavo], 1847-1854; and: Agricultura. Tomo primero [-segundo], 1862-1865 Text in Spanish; diagnoses of plants and animals (divisions Botanica and Zoologia) in Latin 315 leaves of plates (1 folded), many colored or partly colored. All plates (except for the folded map) have heading: Historia de Chile, and most of the plates are numbered, not consecutively, but according to divisions and sections. Atlas v. 1 has 180 plates, with the unnumbered folded map and a portrait; the section Geografia [of the division Documentos] with 18 maps and 2 plans; the division Historia [not designated as such] with 55 plates; and the division Botanica with 103 plates. Atlas v. 2 has 135 plates and comprises the division Zoologia.'
Historic Quarter of the Seaport City of Valparaíso.
International conflicts. Peru against Colombia, Ecuador and Chile (1920).
Spangler, J. M.: Civilization in Chili, past and present (1885).

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